Sunday, September 1, 2019

For this article, answer the questions below Essay

†¢ Summarize the concept of ecological (demographic) risk as this pertains to families. The researchers saw demographic risk in families where the parents were young, had low incomes, low education, and several children. Families were given scores from 0 – 3 in each of these areas, for a total of 20 points possible. The higher the score, the higher risk the families had of dysfunction. For age, over 24 was â€Å"0,† and below that, every 2 years was a subsequent number (22 – 23 = 1, 20 – 21 = 2, under 20 = 3). Similar scores were applied to income (over $40K is 0), education (bachelor’s degree or more is 0) and number of children (1 or 2 is 0). †¢ How did Kochanska et al. (2007) assess demographic risk? Outline which measures were used and why? Researchers looked at a number of parental characteristic, including socialization, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. These criteria were assessed with a self-assessment tool in the parents’ home. It has been shown in other research that high neuroticism is associated with depression and a lack of coping methods, which leads to a negative home environment for children. Researchers theorized that this trait would create more risk within the home. Socialization was the most difficult to measure, as it was actually a measure of several different traits, like outgoingness, happiness, etc. However, parents who scored high in this area reported children who were more securely attached and better behaved, and the researchers’ observations confirmed this. Parents who were more extraverted were generally happier. Conscientiousness related strongly to positive outcomes with children. All of these criteria help to show parents who are more likely to have successful or happy children, although researchers note that some parents who do not exhibit the positive traits also have happy and successful children. †¢ Which are the most significant factors influencing parent-child relations for A) Mothers †¢ Extraversion was a major factor for mothers. Mothers who were not very extraverted tended to discipline their children in a power-struggle way, and this did not accomplish the goal easily. Mothers who were extraverted did not have this problem. B) Fathers †¢ Neuroticism was a major factor for fathers, because fathers scoring high in this area tended to enforce heavy and forceful discipline styles, possibly leading to a disconnect with children. Fathers who scored lower in this area did not have this problem. Discipline styles relate heavily to the way parents and children get along, because correction is a major part of parenting, and parents who cannot effectively correct their children without power struggles or forced-obedience do not have children who are as securely attached. These children may also not learn to monitor themselves.

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